Urinary Tract Infection and its Management

Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy,2018,10,1,42-48.
Published:December 2018
Type:Review Article

Urinary Tract Infection and its Management

Roja Sahu*, Rajesh Kumar Sahoo, Shakti Ketan Prusty, Pratap Kumar Sahu

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan (Deemed to be University) Campus-2 Ghatikia, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar-751029, Odisha, INDIA.

Abstract:

Cleanness accompany every measures of disinfection and sterilization. Infection mainly develops from improper sanitation. Among the universal infectious diseases which increases the economic burden on the society, Urinary tract infection is the most common one that influence organs concerned to the urinary system i.e. ureter, bladder, urethra along with kidney. Urinary tract infections can occur by Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria and through some Fungus. The ultimate prevailing biological pathogen is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Among the micro-organisms causing uncomplicated UTIs, UPEC is predominant followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, group B Streptococcus (GBS), Candida spp. and Proteus mirabilis. Pathogens causing UTI mainly enter to our body from the toilet seat. For the treatment of UTI various plants are used in the conventional system of medicine including Azadirachta indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma longa, Terminalia chebula etc. In addition to this various antimicrobials are there which are used for the treatment of UTI. However the preventive measures include sterilization and disinfection through various chemical agents. The list of disinfectants include formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, per acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compound etc. having different minimum inhibitory concentration range against the UTI causing pathogens. The use of disinfectants can be encouraged towards an effective prevention of UTIs.