E-ISSN 0976-2779 | ISSN 0975-8453
 

Review Article 


Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City

Sandu Siyoto*, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa.

Abstract
Parking attendant is one profession that could be at risk of exposure to car fumes caused by breathing polluted air in the parking lot. This research aimed to analyze the health risks as the result of the exposure to the carbon monoxide (CO) and plumbum (Pb) on the attendants of the parking lots of Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square, Makassar City. The research used the observational design with the approach to Environmental Health Ri2sk Assessment. The research samples consisted of two types, namely the environment samples taken from 6 points of the air measurement in the parking places, and the human samples comprising 30 respondents. The sampling technique used was the simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the ARKL method and processed using the Excel and IBM SPSS version 21. The results of the air measurement in the parking lots with the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) indicated that the concentration was under 30 mg/m3. The highest concentration of CO was 0.54744 mg/m3, and the lowest concentration of CO was 0.34349 mg/m3. Thus the mean concentration of CO was 0.4469208 mg/m3. Meanwhile, the results of the measurement of the concentration of plumbum (Pb) was still under 0.002 mg/m3.
The highest concentration of Pb was 8,10.10-5 mg/m3, and the lowest concentration of Pb was 3,65.10-5 mg/m3. Thus, the mean concentration of Pb was 6,12.10-5 mg/m3. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of the exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and plumbum (Pb) with the character of non-carcinogenic in realtime and lifetime of the 30 respondents had the THQ value 1 or no risk, while the value of Target Cancer Risk (TcR) of the carcinogenic risk of plumbum (Pb) in realtime and a lifetime manner of the 30 respondents had the value of TcR ≤ 10-6 or no risk. As for the Risk quotient (RQ) of non-carcinogenic exposure to CO and Pb, RQ had 1 or not at risk, while Excess Cancer Risk (ECR) carcinogenic exposure to Pb had 1 or not at risk.

Key words: Environmental health risk assessment, carbon monoxide, plumbum, parking attendants.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. SRP. 2019; 10(1): 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28


Web Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. http://www.sysrevpharm.org//?mno=302644730 [Access: April 08, 2020]. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. SRP. 2019; 10(1): 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. SRP. (2019), [cited April 08, 2020]; 10(1): 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



Harvard Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa (2019) Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. SRP, 10 (1), 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



Turabian Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. 2019. Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 10 (1), 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



Chicago Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. "Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 10 (2019), 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa. "Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 10.1 (2019), 151-155. Print. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sandu Siyoto, Anwar Mallongi, Muh Irfan Ilham, Syamsiar Russeng, Mustafa (2019) Target Cancer Risks of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Plumbum among Attendants of Parking Lots in Panakkukang Mall and Panakkukang Square Makassar City. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 10 (1), 151-155. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.28





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