Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Allium Species from Georgia
The aim of the research was phytochemical and pharmacological review of the species of genus Allium, growing in Georgia.
The material of the research was scientific sources and articles, where was described, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activity of these plants.
36 species of genus Allium are described in Georgia. Among them 5 species are endemic for Georgia and 2 for Caucasus region. Many biologically active compounds are isolated from the studied species of this genus. Among them, more than 20 saponins, also 11 different types of sapogenins, flavonoids, sulphuric compounds, etc.
In the literature, there are many biological studies on these isolated compounds. According to the results of the research, extracts of the plants genus Allium, as well as, the individual compounds have important pharmacological activity, for example: Cytotoxic activity, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, hepatoprotective activity, fibrinolytic activity, etc.
Among the 36 species of genus Allium, common in Georgia, 22 have not been studied. Chemical structure and biological activity of compounds in these species have not been determined.
In future, detailed and extensive studies are certainly required to improve the knowledge about the pharmacological activities, chemical constituents and efficacy of these plants.