Review Article - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 11

Ethanopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Moringaceae Family: A Review

Ashok H Akabari1*, Dhiren P Shah2, Sagar P Patel1 and Sagarkumar K Patel3
*Correspondence: Ashok H Akabari, Department of Quality Assurance, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Gujarat, India, Email:

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Moringaceae family are used extensively in source of medicine, food, cosmetic oil, water purification and forage for livestock. Active compounds of natural ingredients need to be extensively explored to get their properties. The family Moringaceae is containing around 33 different species, only 13 species from these 33 species were documented. The 13 species of Moringaceae family are  dicotyledonous  tropical and sub-tropical flowering trees fit into three main categories that reflect life form and geography are slender trees, bottle trees and trees, shrubs and herbs of north eastern of Africa. The aim of this review was to provide an outline of Moringaceae species profiles, ethanopharmacology, pharmacological compound, phytochemistry and their toxicological activity. The method used to collect literature is the Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar  search  engines with keywords. Most important bioactive phytochemical constituents of these species are essential oils, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoid, phenolic compounds, saponins and many more. Many studies showed that Moringceae has efficacy as an antibacterial and antifungal properties; anti-malarial properties; anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties; antiulcer properties; anticancer properties; hypoglycemic properties; hypolipidemic properties; hepato and kidney Protective properties; antioxidant properties; heart and circulatory energizers properties; antiepileptic properties; antispasmodic properties; antihypertensive properties. Further research needs to be done to make pharmaceutical preparations in the form of patent drugs with appropriate therapeutic doses for the betterment of human health.


Moringaceae, Ethanopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Moringa oleifera


The Moringaceae family are dicotyledonous tropical and sub-tropical flowering trees which are used widely in source of medicine, food, cosmetic oil, water purification and forage for livestock (Berushka P and Himansu B, 2012). Different parts of trees have many therapeutic uses, pharmacological activities, sources of numerous active medicinal compounds. The family Moringaceae is containing around 33 different species, only 13 species from these 33 species were documented from old-world tropics (Mabberley DJ, 1987). The 13 species of Moringaceae family are dicotyledonous tropical and sub-tropical flowering trees fit into three main categories that reflect life form and geography are slender trees, bottle trees and trees, shrubs and herbs of north eastern of Africa. The M. oleiferaand M. concanensisare slender trees indigenous to India; M. peregrinaindigenous to Red sea and Horn of Africa. The bottle trees are M. stenopetalaindigenous to Kenya and Ethiopia; M. hildebrandi and M. drouhardii indigenous to Madagascar; M. ovalifolia indigenous to Namibia and Angola. The M. arborea trees, shrubs and herbs are indigenous to north eastern of Africa and Kenya; M. pygmaea indigenous to Somalia; M. borziana, indigenous to Somalia and Kenya; M. rivaeindigenous to Kenya and Ethiopia; M. ruspolianaindigenous to Ethiopia, M. longitubaindigenous to Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia (Olson ME, 2002; Olson ME, 1999).

World Health Organization (WHO) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) define the “a medicinal plant” is (1) any natural plant or more of its parts contains chemical constituents or substances that can used in order to prevent, relieve or cure a disease or to change physiological and pathological process, or (2) any natural plant employed as a source of medicinal compounds/drugs or their precursors (Taiga A and Friday E, 2009; Arias TD, 1999). As per the World Health Organization (WHO) approximate that 4 Billion people, 80% of the world’s population, currently use plant-based natural medicine for their primary health care issues or to maintain health wellbeing (Owolabi MA, et al., 2007). The term “herbal drug” means the part/parts of a plant (leaves, roots, seeds, barks, flowers, stems, etc.) used for formulating herbal drugs and preparing its medicated formulations. The world is enriched with natural and exclusive sources of herbal and medicinal plants. In the last few years bio-friendly, eco-friendly, relatively safe, less side effects and cost-effective, plant based natural medicines have moved from the fringe to the conventional with the increased research in the field of traditional medicine therefore a tremendous growth in the field of herbal or ayurvedic medicine (Sen S, et al., 2011). In developing and developed countries herbal medicine are getting more popular because of its natural origin and lower side effects (Brahmachari UN, 2001). Now a day’s traditional practitioner of developing and developed countries relies on medicinal plants in order to cure some health problem, disease and their health care needs on large number of populations. Because of their low side effects and natural origin natural herbal medicines and traditional practice have often continued their popularity for historical and cultural reasons compare to modern medicines. Herbal plants have been a used as source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and a remarkable number of modern therapeutic drugs have been isolated from natural sources as well as food supplements, nutraceuticals, folk medicines. Similarly, pharmaceutical intermediates and precursor for modern synthetic drugs has also been isolated from herbal plant or natural sources. Several isolations and extracted herbal natural constituents were uses as therapeutic agents in traditional medicine. An herbal medicine preparation or phytopharmaceutical formulations or both are manufactured medicine obtained exclusively from natural plants (such as aerial and non-aerial parts, essential oil, juices and resins), or in the crude state (Rates SM, 2001).

Literature Review

Now a days herbal or ayurvedic medicinal plants are getting more popular than ever because they have potential innumerable benefits and have lesser adverse effects compare to allopathic or synthetic medicine to society or definitely to all mankind, especially in the line of pharmacological and therapeutic area. The bioactive phytochemical constituents of these herbal plants have more medicinal value which produces definite pharmacological action on the human body (Afolabi CA, et al., 2007). Natural plant contain most important bioactive phytochemical constituents are essential oils, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoid, phenolic compounds and several more (Edeoga HO, et al., 2005). Still, add a note of caution stating that herbal remedies are effective under appropriate medical supervision or traditional practitioner and without side-effects but require a longer time for treatment of health problem. The medicinally active component and secondary metabolite are differing in quality and quantity for an herbal plant species because they are growing in different locations and regions (Prajapati D, et al., 2004). The market value of such natural plants depends on their active content and medicinal use rather than merely their flourishing growth. As consider more than 70,000 species of the natural plant kingdom have been used as ayurvedic herbal medicine at one time or other (Purohit S and Vyas S, 2004).

Moringceae is one of the family whose different species have not been investigated completely in spite of and the gigantic reports concerning the different parts i.e., seeds, roots, stem, bark, leaves of a few species have a medicinal properties such as, for example, antibacterial and antifungal properties; anti-malarial properties; anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties; antiulcer properties; anticancer properties; hypoglycaemic properties; hypolipidemic properties; hepato and kidney protective properties; antioxidant properties; heart and circulatory energizers properties; antiepileptic properties; antispasmodic properties; antihypertensive properties. Different species also being used for treatment of various ailments in the indigenous system of medicine (Jayabharathi M and Chitra M, 2011; Fahey JW, 2005; Morton JF, 1991; Cáceres A, et al., 1992; Pal SK, et al., 1995; Eilert U, et al., 1981; Guevara AP, et al., 1999; Buraimoh AA, et al., 2011; El-Alfy TS, et al., 2011; Anbazhakan S, et al., 2007).

The Moringa Oleifera and morinagceae family species is referenced in greater than 80 countries and its indigenous knowledge and use known in over 200 local languages. Moringamedicinal benefits and its cultivation has been increasing across Asia, Africa, Latin America, Greek, Roman, Egypt and many others for thousands of years with literatures dating as far back as 150 AD. The history of Moringa dates back to 150 BC, ancient Egyptians applied it topically to prevent skin infection while Indians use it for curing high blood pressure. Ancient Maurian warriors of India were given to Moringaleaves extract as Elixir formulation in the warfront. The elixir preparation drink was believed to add them extra energy and relieve them of the pain and stress suffered during war. In the Caribbean country, Moringais used for the treatment of warts in Aruba and eye infections in Puerto Rico, where ancient kings and queens used Moringaleaf and fruit in their diet to wellness of mental awakening, healthy and glowing skin. Many other country health practitioners use morinagaceae family plant for various health diseases to cure or prevent such as Senegal health practitioners prescribe it to treat weakness and dizziness and Nicaraguan health practitioners use Moringabuds to sooth headaches. The Moringaspecies are presently of widespread interest because of their outstanding economic potential (Arora DS, et al., 2013; Aaron K, 2022; Mahmood KT, et al., 2010).

Literature review shown that Bio prospecting of Moringaceae and medicinal importance of Moringaceae are published (Berushka P and Himansu B, 2012; Arora DS, et al., 2013). In both these article very less comprehensive phytoconstituents and pharmacology of these Moringaceae family was given and extensive literature will be needed to establish the wide-ranging phytoconstituents and pharmacology of these and other Moringaceae species, and additional explore and exploit their pharmacological properties not overlooking to ascertain the safety and therapeutic use of the active phytoconstituents. This comprehensive review article has been collected and gathering information from the literature documenting the ethanopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Moringaceae species.


As per the World Health Organization, traditional medicine comprise diverse health practices, knowledge, approaches and beliefs incorporating natural herbal plant, animal and/or mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, given alone or in combination to maintain well-being, as well as to cure, diagnose or prevent disease or illness. The importance Moringaceae species was due to their wide variety of medicinal properties.

For the preparation of review article, the ethnopharmacology and ethnobotanical reports of Moringa Oleifera and moringaceae species were select with quantitative data and with prior attention to the frequency of citation for additional potential investigations. In the tropics and subtropics, Moringa Oleifera herbs are generally used in traditional medicine. Still, Moringa Oleifera re-presents only 7% of a moringaceae species of which the other species remains unexplored and underutilized. Researchers have mainly focused on the phytochemical constituents, medicinal properties and nutritional values of Moringa Oleifera; henceforth, there is very slight information, documentation or research done on the importance of the other species within the genus, which are similarly as important and valuable (Berushka P and Himansu B, 2012). Almost plant parts like leaves, seed etc. of this genus are used medicinal agents in human for the treatment or prevent variety of disorders. The major use of Moringaceae species are as Nutritional/Vitamin Supplement (Malnutrition), anti-malarial agent, Anti-hypertensive, Diabetes mellitus. A wide range of application in folk medicine of moringaceae plants belonging to this genus has been reported. The summary of ethnopharmacological data on Moringaceae found in the literature is shown in Table 1.

Plant name Part(s) used Country Medicinal use References
M. oleifera Leaves Thai Hypolipidaemic and Antiatherosclerotic activities Chumark P, et al., 2008
Leaves Ugandan rural Vitamin supplement (Malnutrition), Malaria/Fever, Anti-hypertensive, Diabetes mellitus, Lactation enhancer, Impotence, HIV/AIDS-related symptoms, External sores/ulcers Kasolo JN, et al., 2010
Leaves India Anti-Diabetic agent (Type II) William F, et al., 1993; Ghiridhari VV, et al., 2011
Leaves Gujarat, India Anti dyslipidemic agent Nambiar VS, et al., 2010
Leaves Andhra Pradesh, India Anti dyslipidemic agent, Anti Diabetic agent (Type II) Kumari DJ, 2010
Leaves South Africa Antiproliferative properties (Lung Cancer) Tiloke C, et al., 2013
Leaves African Country Nutritional Supplement Fuglie LJ, 2005
Leaves/ Root/ Stem Zimbabwe Boost the immune system in HIV positive patient Monera TG and Maponga CC, 2012
Seed and leaf Guatemala Treatment of infectious skin and mucosal diseases Rockwood JL, et al., 2013
Leaves Nigeria Malaria, Stomach pain, High blood pressure, Stroke, Rheumatism, Chronic sickness (HIV infection) Popoola JO and Obembe OO, 2013
Seed Nigeria Ease stomach pain, Ulcer, Joint pain Popoola JO and Obembe OO, 2013
Bark Nigeria Hypertension, Diabetes, Potent against snake and scorpion bite Popoola JO and Obembe OO, 2013
Root Nigeria Nervous disorder, Hysteria, pain, Pile, toothache, Sex enhancer Popoola JO and Obembe OO, 2013
Leaves Kerala, India Cancer, Eye cooling, Cold, cough Yabesh JM, et al., 2014
Bark Kerala, India Uterine disorder, Female contraception Yabesh JM, et al., 2014
Seed Kerala, India Cooling agent Yabesh JM, et al., 2014
Flower Kerala, India Sperm production Yabesh JM, et al., 2014
M. stenopetala Leaves, Roots Southern Ethiopia Antiplasmodial activity Dori GU, et al., 2010
Leaves Konso, South-Western Ethiopia Colds and anaemia, Digestion problems and dysentery, Malaria Demeulenaere E, 2001; Seid MA, 2013
Roots Kenya Epilepsy Demeulenaere E, 2001; Seid MA, 2013
Leaves, Roots Ethiopia To treat Malaria, Hypertension, Stomach disorders, Asthma and Diabetes Mekonnen Y, et al., 1999; Bosch CH, 2004
Leaves Ethiopia To treat hypertension and diabetes Jahn SA, 1991
Leaves Southern Ethiopia The retained placenta in women Mekonnen Y, 2002
Roots Southern Ethiopia Antileishmanial agent Mekonnen Y and Gessesse A,1998
M. peregrina Leaves Somalia, Arabian Gulf Treat headaches, fevers constipation, burns, various pains Boulos L, 2000; Miller AG and Morris M, 1990
Leaves and Roots Arabian Gulf Treat malaria, stomach disorders, hypertension, asthma and diabetes Mekonnen Y, et al., 1999; Elbatran SA, et al., 2005
Leaves Somalia, Yemen to Jordan, Palestine and Syria Anti-oxidant and wound healer Nawash OS and Ahmad Al-S H,2011
Aerial parts Malaria, Hypertension, Fever, Asthma and Diabetes Ayyari M, et al., 2014
M. concanensis Leaves Tamilnadu, India Anti-fertility agent Subramanian N, 2009
Root, Root bark Tamilnadu, India Paralysis, Epilepsy, Rheumatism, Fainting and Abscess Jayabharathi M and Chitra M, 2011
Stem bark Tamilnadu, India Headaches and Dental problems Anbazhakan S, et al., 2007
Leaves Tamilnadu, India Menstrual pain, constipation, jaundice, diabetes and skin tumours and to reduce cholesterol levels and blood pressure Anbazhakan S, et al., 2007
Flowers Tamilnadu, India Thyroid problems and leucorrhoea Anbazhakan S, et al., 2007
Fruits Tamilnadu, India Curing liver and spleen diseases and joint pains Jayabharathi M and Chitra M, 2011
Dried seeds Tamilnadu, India In the treatment of goitre, venereal affection, glycosuria and lipid disorders Shantanu K, et al., 2010
Moringa rivae Leave Pakistan Treat weakness of the thigh and calf muscles Berushka P, Himansu B, 2012
Gum Pakistan Arthritis
M. arborea No data available
M. borziana Root powder Kenya and Somalia Treat abdominal pain and haemorrhoids Berushka P, Himansu B, 2012
M. pygmaea Tubers Somalia Eliminate stomach parasites and treat intestine diseases Thulin M, 2012
M. ruspoliana Wajir, Moyale, Mandera districts of Kenya Abdominal pains, eye and throat infections, sexually transmitted diseases in humans Odee DW, et al., 2001
M. hildebrandtii No data available
M. ovalifolia No data available
M. drouhardii Wood and Scented bark South-Western Madagascar Treatment of coughs and colds Berushka P, Himansu B, 2012
M. longituba Wajir, Moyale, Mandera districts of Kenya Abdominal pains, eye and throat infections, sexually transmitted diseases in humans Odee DW, et al., 2001

Table 1: Ethanopharmacology use of Moringaceae


Phytochemicals mens only those chemicals which may have an effect on health, or on color, smell, texture, or flavour of the plants, but are not essential by humans as vital nutrients (Fahey JW, 2005). Natural Plant produced chemical compounds means phytochemicals like glycosides, alkaloids, carotenoids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, polyphenol, phenolic acids, saponins, carbohydrates, phytosterols, vitamins, oxalates and phytates have been used in a wide variety of commercial constitutents and industrial utilization such as cosmetics, water purifying agent, bio-based fuels, biosorbent and plastics as well as natural pigments and bioactive compounds. The continuous research focus on therapeutic use of phytochemicals is increasing day by day due to the harmful adverse effects of the synthetic medicinal compounds. Several research article and reports have been published about the phytochemical content of moringaceae species and reported to have numbers of phytochemical compounds. Following Table 2represent the published research and review article of phytochemical compounds of moringaceae species.

Plant name Part(s) used Extract Compounds Reference
M. oleifera Stem bark Alkaloids, namely moringine and moringinine Kerharo PJ, 1969
Stem and Bark Vanillin, sitosterol, ß-sitostenone, 4-hydroxymellin and octacosanoic acid Faizi S, et al., 1994; Saluja MP, et al., 1978
Whole-gum exudate L-arabinose, L-galactose, glucuronic acid, and L-rhamnose, L-mannose and xylose Bhattacharya SB, et al., 1982
Leucoanthocyanin Khare GC, et al., 1997
Flowers Amino acids, Sucrose, D-glucose, traces of alkaloids, wax, quercetin and Kaempferol Ruckmani K, et al., 1998
Natural sugar, D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-Glucuronic acid, Ascorbic acid Pramanik A, Islam SS, 1998
Pods Acetate phase of the ethanol extract Thiocarbamate and Isothiocyanate glycosides Faizi S, et al., 1994; Faizi S, et al., 1998; Faizi S, et al., 1995
Fruits Cytokinins Nagar PK, et al., 1982
Fruits Ethyl acetate extract 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate, 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl] isothiocyanate, and S-methyl-N-{4-[(alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]} thiocarbamate, Cheenpracha S, et al., 2010
Leaves Water, aqueous methanol, Ethanol extracts Flavonoid pigments such as quercetin, kaempherol, rhamnetin, isoquercitrin and kaempferitrin Faizi S, et al., 1994; Siddhuraju P and Becker K, 2003
Leaves Ethanol extracted Ascorbic acid, oestrogenic substances and ß-sitosterol, iron, calcium, phosphorus, copper, vitamins A, B and C, α-tocopherol, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid, pyridoxine, ß-carotene, protein, and essential amino acids such as methionine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine Makkar HA and Becker K, 1996
Leaves Vitamin A, Vitamin B1-Thiamine, Vitamin B2-Riboflavin, Vitamin B3-Niacin Ramachandran C, et al., 1980; Price M,1985
Vitamin C-Ascorbic acid Pallavi J and Dipika M, 2010
Vitamin E-Tocopherol Moyo B, et al., 2011
Lutein, ß-carotene, Polyphenols, Caffeic acid, o-Coumaric acid, p-Coumaric acid
Gentistic acid, Sinapic acid, Syringic acid Flavonoids, Epicatechin Min Z, et al., 2011
Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Ellagic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Myricetin, Rutin Prakash D, et al., 2007; Verma AR, et al., 2009
Root, Seed, Leaves 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and Benzylglucosinolate Bennett RN, et al., 2003
Leaves Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6''-malonyl-glucoside), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6''-malonyl-glucoside), 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid
Leaves α-l-Rhamnosides of 4-hydroxy-benzyl compounds with nitrile, carbamate, and thiocarbamate groups Leuck M and Kunz H, 1998
Leaves Methanolic extract flavonol glycosides such as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-(beta-glucosyl-(1→2))-(alpha-rhamnosyl-(1→6))-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-(alpha-rhamnosyl-(1→2))-(alpha-rhamnosyl-(1→4))-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1→2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside Verma AR, et al., 2009; Manguro LO and Lemmen P, 2007
Leaves Methanol extract Chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside Atawodi SE, et al., 2010
Seeds 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl N-4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl carbamate (both known compounds), and 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide Oluduro OA, et al., 2010
Seeds Crude Protein, Crude fat, Carbohydrate, essential amino acid lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, cysteine Oliveira JT, et al., 1999
Seeds 2-propyl, 2-butyl and 2-methylpropyl isothiocyanate in addition to 5,5-dimethyl-oxazolidine-2-thione, 4-(4′-O-Acetyl-α(-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, Kær A, et al., 1979
Seeds Vitamin E, Beta carotene, Vitamin A Dahot MU and Memon AR, 1985
Seeds Methanol fractions Methyl ester-hexadecanoic acid, L-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2, 6-dihexa-decanoate, Methyl ester-9-octadecenoic acid, Oleic acid, 9-octadecenamide, Phytol, 1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 1-Hexadecanol, 14-methyl-8-hexadecenal Aja PM, et al., 2014
Seed Benzene Mono palmitic and di-oleic triglyceride Memon GM and Khatri LM, 1987
Seed Ethanol extract Niazimicin, Niazimin A, Niazimin B, Niazicin A and niazicin B, 3-O-(6'-O-oleoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, niazirin, β-sitosterol and glycerol-1-(9-octadecanoate) Guevara AP, et al., 1999; Makkar HA and Becker K, 1996; Anwar F and Bhanger MI, 2003; Faizi S, et al., 1994
Seed oil Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Behenic acid, Arachidic acid, Campesterol, Stigmasterol, α Sitosterol, β5-Avenasterol, Clerosterol, 24-methylene cholesterol, α7-campestanol Anwar F and Bhanger MI, 2003; Lalas S and Tsaknis J, 2002
and 28-isoavenasterol, α, β, γ-Tocopherols
Seed and Root 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzylisothiocynate and benzylisothiocynate Eilert U, et al., 1981
Seed oil Mono-unsaturated fatty acids: Omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid), cis-11-eicosenoic acids), omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)) Vlahov G, et al., 2002
Root Barks Chloroform extract Deoxy niazimicine Nikkon F, et al., 2003
Roots Aurantiamide acetate and 1,3-dibenzyl urea Sashidhara KV, et al., 2009
Stem, Roots, Flower, Pods, Seed, Leaves 4-O-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate (glucomoringin), Quercetin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin
Stem Caffeoylquinic acids Amaglo NK, et al., 2010
Roots Benzylglucosinolate (glucotropaeolin)
Flowers 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate three mono-acetyl-rhamnose isomers, Caffeoylquinic acids
Leaves 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate three mono-acetyl-rhamnose isomers, Caffeoylquinic acids,
M. Stenopetala Root, seed, leaves 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and Benzylglucosinolate Bennett RN, et al., 2003
Leaves Quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin), 3-O-glucoside and 5-caffeoylquinic acid
Root, seed, leaves Glucoconringiin and O-(rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate Mekonnen Y and Dräger B, 2003
Leaves Ethanol extract Rutin, 4-(4'-O-acetyl-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzylisothiocyanate and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzaldehyde Mekonen A and Gebreyesus T, 2000
Seeds Isothiocyanates, Benzyl isothiocyanate and Isobutyl isothiocyanate Nibret E and Wink M, 2010
Leaves Vitamin C, α and β-Carotene, P-Cryptoxanthin, Zeanthin, Lutein, Retinol, Cynogenic glycoside Abuye C, et al., 2003
Leaves Flavonoid: Quercetin; Total polyphenolic: Gallic acid; Condensed tannins: Catechin Toma A, et al., 2014
Leaves Essential amino acids: Arginine, Cysteine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Valine Melesse A, 2011
Leaves The presence of alkaloids, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, tannins, phytosterols and cardiac glycosides Geleta B, et al., 2016
Leaves Rutin, 4-(4'-O-acetyl-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzylisothiocyanate and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzaldehyde Mekonen A and Gebreyesus T, 2000
Roots 1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-olein and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-linolein Bekele B, et al., 2013
Seed Unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic acid Lalas S, et al., 2003
Saturated acids: Behenic and palmitic
β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, α-, β- and δ-tocopherols
Seed 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzylisothiocynate Eilert U, et al., 1981
Leaves and Pods Essential amino acids: Arginine, Cysteine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Valine, Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, C and E Yisehak K, et al., 2011
Root Wood cholest-5-en-3-ol, palmitic acid, n-octacosane and oleic acid Tesemma M, et al., 2013
Leaves Polyphenols, saponins, phytosteroides and withanoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and antraquinone glycosides Mengistu M,2007
Leaves Essential amino acids for leucine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine Melesse A, et al., 2009
M. Peregrina Seeds 2-propyl, 2-butyl and 2-methylpropyl isothiocyanate in addition to 5,5-dimethyl-oxazolidine-2-thione, 4-(4′-O-Acetyl-α(-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, Kær A, et al., 1979
Seed Oil Oleic and gadoleic acids, saturated acids were palmitic acid and stearic acid, sterolic. Fraction of the oil: ß-sitosterol and campsterol, stigmasterol and brassicasterol and Alpha-, γ- and d-tocopherols, Delta(7)-campestanol, clerosterol, Delta(5,24)-stigmastadienol, Delta(7)-stigmastanol and Delta(7)-avenasterol Tsaknis J, 1998
Aerial Parts β-sitosterol, β-amyrin, campsterol, stigmasterol, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-0-rutinoside (rutin), chrysoeriol-7 Elbatran SA, et al., 2005
O-rhamnoside and 6,8,3,5-tetramethoxy apigenin
Aerial parts β-amyrin, α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, apigenin, rhamnetin, neochlorogenic acid, rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside, Quercetin, chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside El-Alfy TS, et al., 2011
Aerial parts Lupeol acetate, α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, sitosterol, sitosterol-3-O-D-glucoside and apigenin Tahany MA, et al., 2010
Seeds, leaf, stem Aspartic, Serine, Glutame, Proline, Glycine, Cystine, Tryosine, Phenyalanine. Essential amino acids: Threonine, methionine, lysine. leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine. Seed-Fatty Acid: Lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acid Osman HE and Abohassan AA, 2012; Al-Dabbas MM, et al., 2010; Somali MA, et al., 1984
Seed oil Campesteol, clerosterol and β sitosterol compounds. Al-Dabbas MM, et al., 2010; Abd El Baky HH and El-Baroty GS, 2013
Fatty acids: Oleic acid, linoleic acid, Tocopherols
Seed kernel and leaf Isobutyl isothiocyanate, isopropyl isothiocyanate, sec-butyl isothiocyanate, n-butyl isothiocyanate and benzyl isothiocyanate. Afsharypuor S, et al., 2010
Volatile isoth-iocyanates: Isobutyl isothiocyanate, isopropyl isothiocyanate, n-butyl isothiocyanate and sec-butyl isothiocyanate
Leaf Flavonoid glycoside: Rutin Dehshahri SH, et al., 2012
Stem Stem Contain Isothiocyanates: Isopropyl isothiocyanate, sec-butyl isothiocyanate and isobutyl isothiocyanate Dehshahri S, et al., 2012
Seed Coat: Isopropyl isothiocyanate, Isobutyl isothiocyanate
Leaves Cyclopentanol, 1 methyl, 2-Heptanone-3-methyl, Hydroperoxide, 1-ethylbutyl, Hydroperoxide,1-methylpentyl, Ethanone, 1-cyclohexyl, Heptadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Nonadecane, Eicosane, Heneicosane, 1-Docosene, Tricosane, Tetracosane, Pentacosane, Hexacosane, Heptacosane, Octacosane, Nonacosane, Triacontane, Acetic acid, butyl ester, Oxirane, 2,2 dimethyl 3-Propyl, Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, 9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, Ethylbenzene, p-Xylene, o-Xylene, Phenyl acetaldehyde, C-10-hydrocarbon, 1-Hexadecanol, Phytol Elbatran SA, et al., 2005; Al-Owaisi M, et al., 2014
O-Methyl, O-ethyl, and O-butyl, 4-((a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl) thiocarbamate (E), 4-(a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate Ayyari M, et al., 2014
M. concanensis Seed oil Oleic acid, Palmitic, Stearic, Behenic, Arachidic acids, Ascorbic acid and α, γ- and δ-tocopherols Manzoor M, et al., 2007; Verma SC, et al., 1976
Flowers Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carbohydrates and Phytosterols Jayabharathi M and Chitra M, 2011
Leaves Hydro alcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts indicate the presence of Alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids Ravichandran V, et al., 2009
Seed oil Pentadeconic, 11-octadecenoic, eicosanoic, hexadecanoic and docosanoic acids Megha G, et al., 2011
Leaves, Flowers and Seeds Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol and carbohydrate Santhi K and Sengottuvel R, 2016
Bark Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Terpenoids, Tannins, Reducing sugar and amino acid Balamurugan V and Balakrishnan V, 2013
Leaves Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carbohydrates, Terpenoids, Tannins, Reducing sugar and amino acid Bhamadevi R, 2015; Balamurugan V and Balakrishnan V, 2013
Leaves 1,2-15,16-Diepoxyhexadecane, Butanoic Acid, 3-Cyano-3-Hydroxy-, Ethyl Ester, N-Hexadecanoic Acid, Butanoic Acid, 3-Cyano-3-Hydroxy-, Ethyl Ester, Phytol, Tetratetracontane, Tetratetracontane, 2-(3-(4-Tert-Butyl-Phenoxy)-2-Hydroxy-Propylsulfanyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-NI, Acetamide, N-(6-Acetylaminobenzothiazol-2-YL)-2-(Adamantan-1-YL), Nonadecane, 2-Methyl, 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexadecen-1-OL Chandasekar S and Malathi R, 2016
Bark Squalene Balamurugan V, et al., 2015; Ugarte-Barco F, et al., 2018
1-Nonene, 4,6,8-trimethyl
Trimethyl (4-tert-butyphenoxy silane)
1-Hexanol, 2-ethyl-2-propyl
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester
Hexanedioic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl)
Heptane, 2,2,3,3,5,6,6-Heptamethyl
Dibutyl phthalate
Heptanoic acid, 2-ethyl
4-Nonene, 3-methyl
Leaf Pantolactone
DL-3-4 Dimethyl-3,4-hexanediol
3,4 dimethyl 5 hexen 3-ol
1,5-Hepatadiene, 3,3, Dimethyl-(E)
Pentane, 1, 3-epoxy-4 methyl
Butanic acid, 2, hydroxyl-2-methyl, methyl ester
1,3-Dioxolane, 2
2,2’-Bioxirane, Allylipo nitrite
3 buten-2-ol
3,4 dimethyl 5 hexen 3-ol
2-propanoic acid, 2 propanyl ester
3-Pentanol,2,4 Dimethyl
M. Ovalifolia Leave Flavanoid: Kaempferol, Quercetin and Myrietin Balamurugan V, et al., 2015; Ugarte-Barco F, et al., 2018

Table 2: Phytochemical compounds isolated from Moringaceae

The Phytochemical constituents in M. oleifera leaves, seed, fruits diverges somewhat with the topographical and climatic conditions under which the plant was grown-up, as well as with the processing methods for the collection of leaves (Coppin J, 2008; Mukunzi D, et al., 2011).

Moreover Moringaspecies is edible, very little nutritional bioavailability and information available. M. oleifera contain high calcium and protein levels, anatomical work shows that all herbal parts are packed with calcium oxalate crystals. For the determination of protein, most analytical methods examine total N rather than bioavailable protein. This is potentially important that the calcium in oxalates in Moringa Oleifera plant available as a dietary calcium source not as a Moringaprotein and mineral consideration. The ingestion of high levels of soluble oxalates can contribute to kidney stones but the authors found only non-soluble oxalates in plant, which are excreted and thus do not contribute to calculi. Thus, determining the relationship between nutrition value of Moringa species and palatability is commonly necessary. The wide range of Moringaand its species, across the dry tropics of Africa, Asia and Madagascar, makes broadly surveying the genetic diversity of each species a challenge because many of the ranges of the species are inaccessibility.

There is no reported literature on the phytochemistry Moringa Arborea, M. rivae, M. Borziana, M. Ruspoliana, M. Pygmaea, M. Hildebrandtii, M. Longitubaand M. drouhardii.


Moringaceae products are frequently suggested by traditional ayurvedic practitioner and used by patients in many countries to cure or prevent disease as well as also sold as over-the-counter natural medicines for nutritional supplements and derived from raw plant tissue or plant extracts. There are many digital platforms where herbal supplements sell for the wellness, nutritional supplement and immunomodulatory effect. One of the most studied species in the moringaceae family is Moringa Oleifera from a nutritional and biological perspective, and both evaluations are commonly based on the traditional uses of plant. Other remaining species of Moringaceae family also studied and evaluations are normally based on the traditional therapeutic uses. Since the chemical constituent’s variability of the plants, the important identified compounds are cited when available. Table 3 lists the biological activities of Moringaceaec species.

Plant name Part(s) used Extract Biological activity Reference
M. oleifera Leaves Methanol extract (ID50 value=0.32 µg/ml) Antimyelomic activity Parvathy MV and Umamaheshwari A, 2007
Seed Hydro alcoholic extract and Aqueous extract Anti-cancer activity Masood MK, 2010
Leaves Aqueous extract Antioxidant properties, Hypolipidaemic and Antiatherosclerotic Chumark P, et al., 2008
Leaves Aqueous extract Antioxidant activity Verma AR, et al., 2009; Sreelatha S and Padma PR, 2009
Leaves, Stem and Root barks Methanol extract Antioxidant activity Atawodi SE, et al., 2010
Leaves Ethanolic extract, Methanolic extract Immunomodulatory effect Gupta A, et al., 2010; Sudha P, et al., 2010
Leaves Aqueous extract Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory properties Sulaiman MR, et al., 2008
leaves Hydroalcoholic extract Anti-inflammatory properties Mahajan SG and Mehta AA, 2009
Fruits Ethyl acetate extract Anti-inflammatory properties Cheenpracha S, et al., 2010
Seed Ethanolic extract Anti-inflammatory properties Mahajan SG and Mehta AA, 2010
Seed Ethanol extract Antitumor Guevara AP, et al., 1999
Pod Anti-inflammatory properties Muangnoi C, et al., 2012
Leaves Aqueous extract Anti-hyperglycemic activity Jaiswal D, et al., 2009
Leaves leaf powder Anti-hyperglycemic activity Ndong M, et al., 2007
Leaves Anti-hyperglycemic activity William F, et al., 1993; Ghiridhari VV, et al., 2011
Leaves leaf powder Hypoglycaemic effect in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Anti Hyperlipidemic effect (Human Studies) Kumari DJ, 2010
Leaves Hypocholesterolemic agent Ghasi S, et al., 2000
Leaves Methanolic extract Hypolipidemic effect Jain PG, et al., 2010
Leaves Aqueous extract Anti-hyperglycaemic and Anti hyperlipedemic effect Divi SM, et al., 2012
Leaves Leaf tablet Antioxidant properties, Hypolipidaemic effect (Human Studies) Nambiar VS, et al., 2010
Seed Anti-diabetic effect Al-Malki AL and El Rabey HA, 2015
leaves Hydro alcoholic Extract Cerebroprotective effect Kirisattayakul W, et al., 2013
Seeds and Leaves Ethanol extracts Anti-fungal activity Chuang PH, et al., 2007
Leaves Hydro alcoholic Extract Treat dementia Sutalangka C, et al., 2013
Leaves leaf powder Nephro protective effect Adeyemi OS and Elebiyo TC, 2014
leaves Ethanol extract Neurobehavioral and anticonvulsant effect Bakre AG, et al., 2013
leaves aqueous extract Anxiolytic and antiepileptic effects Ingale SP and Gandhi FP, 2016
Root-bark extract Ethanol extracts Antiulcer, antisecretory, and cytoprotective activity Choudhary MK, et al., 2013
Flowers Hydro alcoholic Extract Anti-arthritic activity Mahajan SG and Mehta AA, 2009
Seeds Aqueous and ethanolic extracts Antibacterial effect Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Viera GH, et al., 2010
Plant Aqueous extract Cytotoxic effects on Hela cells Nair S and Varalakshmi KN, 2011
Leaves Aqueous And Chloroform extract Antibacterial effect Abalaka ME, et al., 2012
Leaves Methanolic extract Antiulcer activity Pal SK, et al., 1995
Drumsticks Hydro-alcoholic extract Chemo modulatory effect Bharali R, et al., 2003
Fruits Hypolipidaemic effect Mehta K, et al., 2003
Root Barks Chloroform extract Antimicrobial activity Nikkon F, et al., 2003
Leaf Stalk Aqueous extract Antimicrobial activity Thilza IB, et al., 2010
Pod Hydro-ethanolic extraction Antinephrotoxic effect Paliwal R, et al., 2011
Seed Ethanolic extraction Anti-pyretic effect Sutar NG, et al., 2009
Seed n-Butanol extract Anti-asthmatic effect Mahajan SG, et al., 2009
Seed kernels Anti-asthmatic effect Agrawal B and Mehta A, 2008
Seeds Ethanolic extract Anti-arthritic activity Mahajan SG, et al., 2007
Leaves Aqueous extract Wound healing property Rathi BS, et al., 2006
Seeds Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts Antipyretic activity Hukkeri VI, et al., 2006
Leaves Ethyl acetate extract Wound healing activity
Leaves Aqueous extract Anti-Hyperthyroidism effect Tahiliani P and Kar A, 2000
Leaves and Seed fresh leaf juice and aqueous extracts from the seeds Antimicrobial activity Caceres A, et al., 1991
Root Chloroform extract Antimicrobial activity and Anti-fungal activity Nikkon F, et al., 2003
Leave   Anti-fungal activity Ayanbimpe GM, et al., 2009
Seed   Anti-cyanobacterial activity Lürling M and Beekman W, 2010
Seed Hepato-protective effect Hamza AA, 2007
Leave Ethanolic extract Hepato-protective effect Pari L and Kumar NA, 2002
Leave   Hepato-protective effect Selvakumar D and Natarajan P, 2008
Plant, Leaves   Hepato-protective effect Fakurazi S, et al., 2008; Fakurazi S, et al., 2012
Seed   Ameliorative effects, antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect Hamza AA, 2010
Leaves Methanolic extract Radio protective effect Rao AV, et al., 2001
Flower bud - Anti-ulcerogenic activity Akhtar AH and Ahmad KU, 1985
Flowers, Water infusions antispasmodic, Cáceres A, et al., 1992
Leaves, root, seeds, Anti-inflammatory and
stalks Diuretic activity
Seed Ethanol Antitumor promoter Guevara AP, et al., 1999
Seed Seed powder Inhibit arsenic-induced toxicity Gupta R, et al., 2005
Leave Hydro alcoholic extract Cardio protective activity (Isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats) Nandave M, et al., 2009
Pods Hydroethanolic Reno protective effects Sharma V, et al., 2012
Leaves and Root Methanolic Antiarthritis activity Manaheji H, et al., 2011
Leaves Ethanol Anti-oxidative stress Sinha M, et al., 2011
Seed Chitin-binding protein from Moringa oleifera seeds Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects Pereira ML, et al., 2011
Leaves and Root Aqueous Wound healing (Protease activity) Satish A, et al., 2012
Leaf and Fruit Ethanolic extracts Antistress, Antioxidant Luqman S, et al., 2012
Leaves Ethanol Antioxidant activity Moyo B, et al., 2012
Pod Methanol Anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity Gupta R, et al., 2012
- - Retinoprotective effects (Preventing diabetes induced retinal dysfunction) Gupta SK, et al., 2013
Leaves formulated in to Tablet Tablet Anti-diabetic activity Momoh MA, et al., 2013
Nephrotoxicity activity (Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity) Ouédraogo M, et al., 2013

Table 3: Biological activities of Moringaceae


Natural or dietary nutritional supplement or herbal products are likely to be effective and safe for treating or preventing disease with appropriate knowledge. Due to the complex chemical nature of herbal nutritional supplements which is makes it difficult to evaluate their potency, efficacy and safety. Herbal nutritional or dietary products often show great variability in quality because of some issues including authentication, substitution and adulteration and environment as well as soil factors during growth, harvest, and postharvest processing (Guo L, et al., 2010).

The reported adverse effects of herbal supplement and formulation have higher related to public health risks including the quantity, concentration, composition, and specific contaminants/ adulteration of dietary supplements. Herbal dietary nutritional supplements and other ayurvedic products have been documented as the common causes of drug-induced liver injury (Ruan J, et al., 2015). A current report indicates that dietary/herbal nutritional supplements are produced 19% of drug-induced acute liver failure cases, (Goldberg DS, et al., 2015) since consumers/patients often buy these products online without the supervision and concern with the health care provider and are not aware of synthetic drug and herbal formulation interactions and appropriate warnings.

From the Moringaceae family various plant part leaves, bark, seeds, roots, flowers and sap are commonly used in traditional medicine, and the leaf and immature seed pods are used as food supplement and products as a human nutrition. In Table 4, Toxicology Studies of Moringaceae Family Plant research article data was shown.

Plant name Part(s) used Extract Toxicology studies detail Result Ref.
M. oleifera Seeds Aqueous extracts Aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera seeds in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings and adults. Toxic reaction exhibited by the fish includes erratic movement, air gulping, loss of reflex, discolouration, molting, loss of scale, and haemorrhage. Mortality increased with increase in concentration of M. oleifera and time of exposure in both O. niloticus fingerlings and adults. Ayotunde EO, et al., 2011
  Leaves Aqueous extract The aqueous extract from the leaves of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its oral toxicity by the oral route in rats In the acute toxicity test, M. oleifera extract caused no death in animals even at 2000 mg/kg dose Adedapo AA, et al., 2009
  Seeds Methanol extract The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. Ajibade TO, et al., 2013
  Seeds Aqueous extract Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract to induce cytotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The M. oleifera leaf extract was shown to be genotoxic based on blood cell analysis at the 3000 mg/kg dose. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was deemed safe and did not produce genotoxicity when given to rats. Asare GA, et al., 2012
  Leaves Powder of leaves Toxicity evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaves powder in Albino (Wister stains) rats. The result of the study revealed that some organs of the treated animals had observable microscopical lesions, while the control animals had no observable microscopic lesions in all the organs examined. Ambi AA, et al., 2011
  Leaves Powder of leaves Acute toxicity of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in Sprague Dawley rats. This study indicated that oral administration of Moringa oleifera dried leaf powder up to 2000 mg/kg showed no changes in clinical signs or gross pathology and that the LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg. Moodley I, 2017
  Leaves Powder of leaves Evaluation of sub chronic toxicity of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in Balbc Mice This study indicated that oral administration of Moringa oleifera dried leaf powder at a 1000 mg/kg daily showed no changes in clinical signs or gross pathology over a prolonged chronic exposure period of 90 day. Moodley I, 2018
  Leaves Aqueous leaf extract In an acute toxicity test, male Wistar albino mice were orally administered an aqueous extract up to 6400 mg/kg and intraperitoneally up to 2000 mg/kg. A sub-chronic toxicity test was performed by daily administration with the extract at 250, 500 and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days The LD50 was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in sperm quality, haematological and biochemical parameters in the treated rats compared to the control. Awodele O, et al., 2012
  Leaves Aqueous Extract Toxicological assessment of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in Rabbits The effects of the leave extracts on the haematological parameters, selected liver enzymes, insulin level and body weights of the affected rabbits were analysed. There were significant increases in CD4 cells (p<0.01), lymphocytes (p<0.05) and a decrease in neutrophils (p<0.05). There was an enhancement in the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase in rabbits exposed to 2.5 mL of the extract. There was no significant difference in the histology of major organs, weights and the physical and behavioural pattern of both test and control rabbits. Isitua CC and Ibeh IN, 2013
  Leaves Methanol extract Toxicological evaluations of Methanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera (MEMO) leaves in liver and kidney of male Wistar rats. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum total protein, globulin and body weight in a dose-dependent manner. Rats that received MEMO at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine which pointed to hepatic and kidney damage. Oyagbemi AA, et al., 2013
  Seeds Aqueous extract Cytotoxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds was evaluated in mice. (Dose: 500 and 2000 mg/kg) No signs of systemic toxicity were observed, and all the animals survived. There were no changes in organ indices between treatment and control groups. Small but insignificant changes were observed in erythrocytes, platelets, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. Araújo LC, et al., 2013
  Seed   Genotoxicity assessment of an extract of M. oleifera seed powder and the Water-Soluble Moringa oleifera Lectin (WSMoL) isolated from seeds. The seed extract was not genotoxic without metabolic activation, and did not pose a risk to human health. Rolim LA, et al., 2011
  Leaves aqueous extract Acute toxicity (5000 mg/kg) and sub-acute toxicity studies of the leaf (40 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) extract were conducted in rats. There were no observed overt adverse reactions in the acute and sub-acute studies. Although there were observed elevations in liver enzymes ALT and ALP and lower creatinine levels in the extract treated groups, no adverse histopathological findings were found. Asiedu-Gyekye IJ, et al., 2014
  Leaves and seeds water extract and ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds Cytotoxicity of extracts from Moringa stenopetala leaves and seeds was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. (Dose: concentration of 500 mg/mL) The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. Mekonnen N, et al., 2005
  Roots Methanol extract Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. root on Histo-architechture of liver and kidney in guinea pigs. (Dose: Daily intraperitoneal injections of the root extract at doses of 3.6, 4.6, and 7.0 mg/kg, and control for 3 weeks.) Histological sections of all treated groups had ballooning degeneration of the liver, suggesting time-dependent hepatotoxicity rather than a dose-dependent response. This study involved a methanol extract of roots, which was given intraperitoneally and not orally. Paul CW and Didia BC, 2012
Moringa stenopetala Leaves Butanol fraction Acute toxic effect of butanol fraction of the leaves in experimental rats. Did not produce adverse effects in treated rats after acute treatment. Musa A, et al., 2015
Dosage Given: 500 mg/kg-5000 mg/kg respectively of the fraction No toxic signs on behavior, gross pathology, and body weight, as compared with the controls.
  Leaves Butanol fraction Sub chronic toxicity studies of butanol fraction of leaves of Moringa Stenopetala in experimental rats. In the Sub chronic toxicity study, results showed that the fraction did not produce adverse effects and toxicity. The fraction did not significantly, induce severe toxic effects on the gross and histopathology of the liver and kidneys of treated rats, except infiltration of inflammatory cells around the portal area of the liver and Bowman’s capsule of the kidney sections. Musa AH, et al., 2015
Dosage given: 500 mg/kg-1000 mg/kg respectively of the fraction
  Leaves Aqueous extract The effects of Moringa stenopetala on blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice. The aqueous leaf extract of M. stenopetala is shown to increase body weight and reduce serum glucose and cholesterol level in mice. Neither a significant change in the weight nor in histopathology of liver and kidney were observed in the animals. Ghebreselassie D, et al., 2011
Dosage given : 900 mg/kg
  Leaves Ethanol extracts of leaves The acute toxicity study of the extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala leaves in liver and kidney of female Wistar rats The acute toxicity study found no signs of toxicity; hence LD50 was greater than 5000 mg/kg. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver in a dose de-pendent manner but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control. Geleta B, et al., 2016
Moringa peregrina Seeds Extraction of fixed oil Acute toxicity study on Moringa peregrina fixed oil in Albino Rats The results show that oral administration of Moringa peregrina seeds oil in doses of 3000-18000 mg/kg. Resulted in mortalities. The dose of Moringa peregrina seeds oil that killed half of the rats (LD50) was 11450 mg/kg b.w. The results of liver and renal histopathology confirmed that the death of rats. It can be concluded that the Moringa peregrina fixed oil is safe and had low toxicity effect when given in concentrated doses for short period of time. Kahilo K, et al., 2015
  Seeds Dry seed Toxic effect of Moringa peregrina seeds on histological and biochemical analyses of adult male Albino rats Daily doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of dry seed of M. peregrina were administered orally to 4 groups of rats for 14 days. No histopathological changes were detected in the body tested organs. In consequences, intake of different doses of M. peregrina, even high one, exhibit no organ toxicity and are safe for human use. El-Hak HN, et al., 2018
Moringa concanensis Nimmo Leaves Ethanolic extract Toxicity evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis Nimmo. leaves in Wistar rats During the acute toxicity study, no sign of mortality was observed when rats were administered dose of 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg (p<0.05). Similarly, there were no significant changes in body weight, food consumption, haematology, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations. The results of the current study explored that the treatment with this plant extract for 14 days did not produce significant toxicity. Therefore, our study suggests that the use of appropriate level of M. concanensis Nimmo extract as traditional medicine should have a wide range of safety for its therapeutic use Balakrishnan BK, Krishnasamy K, 2018

Table 4: Toxicology studies of Moringaceae family plant

Discussion and Conclusion

There was a significant variation in ethanopharmacology, phytoconstituent, pharmacology as well as micronutrients and macro elements in different species of moringaceae for some elements but also some did not show significant differences. This might be attributed to the variable uptake of minerals by the plants and variable agro ecologies of the different regions. M. oleifera, M. Peregrine, M. stenopetala, and M. concanensisis the maximum well-known of the species and its given recognition as a food and medicinal plant for several disease. However, more studies needs to be done on other species of moringaceae family for its potential as food and medicinal plant. Moringaas well as other Moringaceae family plant should be encouraged for more consumption to human for better nutrition and medicinal functions.

From this review we conclude that from the Moringaceae family very few species identified to be consumed as leaf vegetables by native people are M. oleifera, M. stenopetalaand M. concanensis. Many of unknowns’ spe cies remain regarding their nutritional qualities across other Moringaceae family species. Although in this literature we have review the possible dietary nutritional value of remaining species, nearly nothing is reported regarding composition such as the amino acid complement of their proteins, vitamin and the presence of anti-nutritional compounds, or even their edibility. Therefore, such basic information regarding species of potential interest should determining such as M. longitubaor M. ruspoliana. Due to lacking of knowledge about Moringaceae family species, many people are used locally in their native ranges as a medicine, not as a nutritional food supplement.


Author Info

Ashok H Akabari1*, Dhiren P Shah2, Sagar P Patel1 and Sagarkumar K Patel3
1Department of Quality Assurance, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Gujarat, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, CK Pithawalla Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Gujarat, India
3PK/PD Department, Pfizer Inc through Eliassen Group, New Jersey, USA

Citation: Akabari AH: Ethanopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Moringaceae Family: A Review

Received: 20-Oct-2022 Accepted: 03-Nov-2022 Published: 10-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.31858/0975-8453.13.11.794-814

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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