Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Momordica Charantia L Fruits Ethanolic Extract in Liver and Kidney
Syamsudin Abdillah, Bilqis Inayah, Kartiningsih, Anggita Balqis Febrianti, and Safira Nafisa
Background: Momordica charantia L (MC) fruit is used as anti-malaria in Indonesia, and long-term application requires testing of acute and subchronic toxicity.
Aim of the study: The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate the histopathological effect of MC ethanolic extract on the liver and kidney of mice.
Materials and methods: For acute toxicity study, the mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=6), where the control received Na-CMC 0.5%, and the experimental units were administered a single dose of 175, 1250, 2000 and 5000 mg/Kg ethanolic extract of MC fruit per oral. Moreover, sub chronic toxicity study involved the random division of mice into three experimental groups (n=6), that received 40, 80, and 320 mg/Kg ethanolic extract of MC per orally for 28 days.
Results: The acute toxicity study demonstrated no detrimental effects, hence LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/Kg. In addition, the subchronic evaluation led to elevation in hepatic and kidney biomarker, including ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine, although none attained twice the normal level. The increase was observed to be significantly different (p>0.05) at 80 mg/Kg and 320mg/Kg doses, compared to the control. Conversely, the liver histology sections showed congestion at the sinusoids with higher doses (320mg/Kg), while the sections of the kidney verified the presence of mild distortion and congestion at 320 mg/Kg.
Conclusion: Despite within the safe limits, it is possible for the 28 days administration of Momordica charantia L ethanol extract to affect liver and kidney function.