Aeration Volume and Inoculum Density Using in Bioreactor to Optimized Biomass Production and Secondary Metabolites in Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Adventitious Roots Culture
Dannis Yuda Kusuma, Alfinda Novi Kristanti, Anjar Tri Wibowo, Tan Boon Chin, Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara*
Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are secondary metabolite compositions of the Gynura procumbens plant. Limited amounts of these secondary metabolites in nature limit their potential as raw material for pharmaceutical drugs. Hence, the optimization of adventitious root culture in vitro should be used as an alternative to producing these compounds. Under optimal culture conditions, the target secondary metabolites can be significantly increased. In this work, we determined the optimum aeration volume and inoculum density on growth and secondary metabolite production of Gynura procumbens adventitious roots in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. The adventitious roots were cultured in a 2 L liquid MS in a 3 L capacity Balloon-Type Bubble Bioreactor (BTBB). The 3 g/L adventitious roots were cultured in 4 variations of aeration volume treatment. The best aeration treatment is 0.15 vvm were used in 4 variations of the inoculum density treatment. The highest biomass (75.38 ± 0.95 g/L), total phenolic contents production (27.98 mg/DW), and flavonoid production rates (256.24 mg/DW) from adventitious roots culture in the BTBB has produced from a treatment combination aeration volume of 0.15 vvm and inoculum density 3 g/L. Accumulation of malondialdehyde and proline in roots in that treatment was lower than other treatments. The four flavonoid compounds that known used as drugs pharmaceutical compound as myricetin, catechin, kaempferol, and quercetin was successfully determined under that treatment. These optimal conditions of aeration volume and inoculum density could be used to mass-produce the desired compounds from Gynura procumbens adventitious root on a pilot scale for industries.