Analysis of Acrylamide and Glycidamide In Dried Blood Spot After Food Exposure and Its Carcinogenicity Potential: An Article Review
Yahdiana Harahap, Afaf Amma Lahilla, Sunarsih
Acrylamide is a chemical compound formed when carbohydrate-rich food is placed in the heating process with temperatures above 120°C. Many studies have discussed the toxicity and carcinogenicity effects of acrylamideproducing neurotoxin, genotoxin, and cytotoxin. After ingestion, acrylamide undergoes metabolism which is catalyzed by the CYP2E1 enzyme into its epoxide compounds, glycidamide. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are very reactive to DNA and can form DNA-adducts, which are known to be genotoxic and cytotoxic. Glycidamide is known to have a higher affinity for DNA compared to its precursors, so it can be said that glycidamide is the ultimate carcinogen of acrylamide. Human exposure to acrylamide can be obtained from a few factors, such as occupational exposure, food exposure, and cigarette smoke. However, studies found that dietary intake is the major source of acrylamide and glycidamide exposure. To determine the risk of acrylamide and glycidamide exposure to humans from dietary intake, it is necessary to analyze its concentration levels in the blood. One of the biosampling methods that can be used is Dried Blood Spot (DBS). The quantitative analysis was conducted using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This article review aims to analyze the bioanalytical method that is most suitable for the analysis of acrylamide and glycidamide in DBS using LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine the relationship between dietary intake with acrylamide and glycidamide levels in the blood, as well as knowing the potential carcinogenicity of both analytes to humans, especially glycidamides.