ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENT SUPPORTS IN BATAM?S PEMPING ISLAND-INDONESIA FOR PIPELINE GAS TRANSMISSION
MUBARAK, MUBARAK, NURHUDA, AHMAD, SULAIMAN, ALBERTUS.
The coastal waters of Pemping Island in Batam have extensive biodiversity with an ecological system in the form of coral reef and mangrove ecosystems. The island is significantly close to the international trade sea transportation routes. Currently, a gas pipeline construction is built on the island which might affect the environment. This study is aimed to evaluate the coastal waters of Pemping Island, Batam to preserve the marine ecosystem from industrial development. The observation method was carried out by taking sample data directly from several research locations to test the quality of seawater, coral reef ecosystems, and mangrove forests. Retrieval of data for aspects of waves, tides, currents, and bathymetry using the help of satellite imaging systems. Overall seawater quality has a value below the quality standard with a depth of brightness measured up to 4 m above sea level. Chemically, all parameters are below the standard quality value, except phosphate and nitrate. Waves, tides, and ocean currents are interconnected aspects based on seasonal changes in the west and east. The average depth of the waters of Pemping Island is no more than 30 m including a relatively low or shallow depth. Based on observations of coral reef ecosystems are in the category of damage due to the closure of coral reef ecosystems which are dominated by abiotic and other biotics 80% compared to live and dead corals by 20%. Mangrove vegetation on Pemping Island consists of two types of mangroves, namely Rhizophora mucronata which dominates the number of mangrove tillers and Avicennia marina which dominates the mangrove stands at the observation site.