Association of Th-Tc protein CD28+ and Periodontal Inflammation among Indonesian Women with SLE Disease
Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Kusworini Handono, Nurdiana, Handono Kalim, Cesarius Singgih Wahono, Sri Poeranto, Wisnu Barlianto.
Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by secretion of autoantibodies and deposition of immune complexes associated with various clinical manifestations and tissue damage. activates T cell differentiation. T cells experience hyperactivity could produce defects in Th (T helper cell) and Tc (T cytotoxic), also loose CD28+ protein in surface marker. This study aims to associate Th and Tc protein CD28+ and Periodontal Inflammation in SLE disease.
Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional observational analytic study was conducted in 153 SLE patients where clinical examination and laboratory tests were done to assess the activity of the disease, periodontitis and evaluate lymphocytes T CD28 using flow cytometry. Clinical examination of periodontitis was using periodontal index (PI) and gingivitis was using gingival index (GI). PI assessment was done by a WHO Periodontal Examining Probe using Periodontal Index by Russel.
Results: Ratio Th/Tc in the SLE group was lower 0,7% than the control group. The percentage of Th CD28+ was lower 12,65% in SLE than the control group. Also, the percentage of Tc CD28+ was lower 5,28% in SLE than the control group. Then the total percentage CD28+ (both Th and Tc) was lower 23,5%. Confirming Th, Tc, and CD28+ protein between two groups were based on flow cytometry analysis. There was a significant strong association (p<0.01), Th CD28+ with periodontitis, and also Tc CD28with periodontitis in the SLE group (p<0.001). Both Th and Tc were loose CD28+ protein in the SLE group compared to control.
Conclusion: Both Th and Tc were loose CD28+ protein in the SLE group compared to control. There is association Th and Tc protein CD28+ and Periodontal Inflammation in SLE disease.