Chronic Kidney Disease and Maintenance of Hemodialysis
Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) or Chronic Renal Disorder (CRD) is associated with abnormal structural and functional of kidney and its main unit nephrons which lead to the abnormal urine output and impaired excretory function. CKD is also associated with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and other renal disorders. So after crossing the stages the renal failure reaches to End Stage Renal Disorder (ESRD) which is fifth stage in CKD according to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF). Dialysis in the patient individual is done in the end stage i.e. when kidney lost its function about 80%-90% and when the GFR rate <15 ml/min. In CKD the maintenance of hemodialysis is done by some medications like antiplatelet (heparin), erythropoietin stimulating agents, and iron drugs and sometimes if the patient is hypertension ACE inhibitors are used.