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Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol Extract Legundi Leaf (Vitex trifolia L.) and N-Hexan, Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol-Water Fraction against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Abstract

Peni Indrayudha, Indah Gita Cahyani

Indonesia’s biodiversity provides many potential anticancer agent. One of the plants that has anticancer properties is legundi (Vitex tifolia L.). This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effects of ethanol extract, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane fractions of legundi leaves in MCF-7 cells and to identify compounds contained in the legundi ethanol extract and their fractions. The extraction process was carried out using the socletation method with 96% ethanol. Fractination was done using a liquid-liquid partition. Cytotoxic tests were performed using the MTT assay method. Phytochemical screening was carried out by TLC test using silica GF254 stationary phase, mobile phase n-hexane:ethyl acetate (7:3) and chloroform:methanol:acetic acid (9:3:3). Observation of spot results was done using spray reagents and visualized using UV 366. The cytotoxic test results showed that the ethanol extract and the n-hexane fraction of legundi leaves had cytotoxic effects with IC50 values ​​of 98.69 µg/mL and 41.06 µg/mL, respectively. While ethyl acetate and ethanol-air fractions did not have cytotoxic effects. The results of phytochemical screening from ethanol extract and n-hexane fraction of legundi leaves showed flavonoid, phenol, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid compounds. The ethyl acetate fraction contains a mixture of steroid, saponin, phenol, tannin, and terpenoid. The ethanol-water fraction contains compounds containing steroid, saponin, phenol, tannin, and alkaloid.

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