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Effect of COVID-19 on Bacterial Resistance

Abstract

Hussam H. Tizkam, Osama Q. Fadhil, Esraa Ghazy

Background: The development of bacteria resistant to the antimicrobial (AM) in hospitals and other health care settings is a main concern of public health. Great AM consumption chiefly in hospitals frequently defined as the most vital factor leading to bacterial resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the most common bacteria that encountered in medical institutions and bacterial resistance to AM before and after COVID-19.
Patient and method: The current study was conducted in eleven medical institutions in Baghdad through a period of six months from January to June 2020. Seven AM disc types were used which are amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, levofloxacin, meropenem and vancomycin. In this study, 1324 samples were isolated and examined for detection of bacterial resistance to AM before and after pandemic of COVID-19. Culture samples were tested directly by Vitek 2 that give dependable proof of identity and susceptibility outcomes after 18-24 h.
Results: Cultures revealed that the main isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia (Kl. pneumonia) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. aeruginosa ) at a percentage of 54%, 23% and 23%, respectively. Meropenem was the main sensitive AM before COVID-19 whereas gentamicin was the main resistant AM. After pandemic of COVID-19, the resistance to all AM was increased.
Conclusion: The main isolated bacteria were E. coli and the more effective AM was meropenem. After spreading of COVID-19, the bacterial resistance to all tested AM was increased due to more frequent use of these medications in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

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