In Vitro Sun Protection Factor Determination of Selected Medicinal Plants and Formulation of Sunscreen Cream
Introduction: Plants, due to presence of secondary metabolites like flavonoids, phenols, have been used for various skin care purposes. The ethanolic extracts of different parts of various plants were screened for phytochemicals. Total phenols, total flavonoids, in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) were determined and sunscreen cream was formulated and evaluated from the most potent plant extract.
Method: Extraction was done by double maceration. The total phenol content was determined colorimetrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method. In vitro SPF was determined by spectrophotometric analysis using Mansuer equation. Formulation was done by incorporating oil phase into aqueous phase.
Results: Phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of various phytoconstituents. Among nine plants, the maximum total phenolic and flavonoid content was of Magnifera indica extract. Four formulations were prepared containing 0%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract in a cream base. The evaluation of all the formulations has been done by analysis of different parameters such as pH, acid value, saponification value, in vitro SPF, stability for 21 days. The pH of the formulation was within the range of 5.01-6.22. Acid value was within the range of 5.98-14.21. The saponification value of cream was between 23.27-33.25. The formulations containing 5% plant extract showed the highest SPF value. The stability study of the formulation with 5% plant extract showed homogeneity under 4°C and room temperature but non-homogeneity under higher temperature i.e. 40°C.
Conclusion: This will be a better, cheaper and safer alternative to harmful chemical sunscreens which are abundantly available in the market.