Etoposide-Loaded Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, Optimization and Cytotoxicity Assay
Maha M. Ali, Nawal A. Rajab, Alaa A. Abdulrasool.
In recent decades, gold nanoparticles are used for treatment and diagnosis of cancer through a myriad of modalities and delivery approaches. The aim of this study was to prepare and optimize etoposide-loaded gold nanoparticles by incorporated of etoposide in to the functionalized gold nanoparticles. Biocompatible polymers were used to enhance the colloidal stability, payloads capacity and cellular uptake. Twelve formulas were prepared and optimized by studying different variables such as nanoparticles size, etoposide loadig, polymer type, preparation temperature and sonicating duration on controlling size and uniformity of nanoparticles as well as etoposide loading efficiency and in-vitro release profile. The obtained results indicated that formula (F11) prepared from the functionalized gold nanoparticles (GN10) with a combination of HPMC-E5 and PVA (1:1), at room temperature and sonicating for 5 hours was selected as an optimized formula. F25 showed maximum etoposide loading capacity (1mg/ml) with higher loading efficiency (99.57%) and in-vitro released with controlled manner (better retardation at physiological pH ~ 7.4 and greater release at lysosomal pH ~ 4.6) as well as AFM results provided gold nanoparticles with smoother surface, average particles size (27.18nm) with uniform size distribution (15.02%). In addition to that, the result of TEM indicated uniform spherical shape with zeta potential of -39.23. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies showed high selectivity toward cancer (NHI-H69) than normal (BEAS-B2) cell lines. All these results gave a preliminary indication that etoposide-loaded gold nanoparticles considered as effective multiplexed therapeutic agent.