Evaluation of the Anti-diabetic Activities of Colored Rice Varieties in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Tariq I. Almundarij, Abdel Kader A. Zaki, Saleh M. Albarrak, Yousef M. Alharbi, Saleh A. Almuzaini and Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza
The study was done to evaluate the replacement of white rice with other varieties of pigmented rice in a streptozotocin (STZ) -induced type 1 diabetic rat model (T1DRM). Application was carried out for a month in the form of ethanol extracts delivered via oral intubation or supplementation of wholegrain rice as 20% of the feed. The antioxidant activities of different colored rice varieties were measured, with the highest activity recorded in brown rice, followed by black, and then red rice. The results obtained for the T1DRM indicated that there had been a gain in body weight in all rats that received rice supplementation, with the highest seen in groups given diets supplemented with 20% red rice, while the lowest was in those supplemented with white rice. It was noted that the black and brown rice, either in extract form or 20% whole rice supplementation (P <0.05) led to significant hypoglycemia. The supplementation of black rice extract led to a significant decrease in the levels of AST at (P <0.01) and ALT, ALP at (P <0.05). However, the supplementation of 20% whole black rice resulted in a significant reduction in the level of AST (P <0.05) and a significant increase in the activity of pancreatic antioxidant enzymes. The supplementation of black, brown, or red rice extracts resulted in leucopenia (P <0.05), neutrophilia (P <0.05), and lymphocytosis (P <0.05) compared to the T1DRM group. Finally, it is clear from the results that the substitution of whole-grain pigmented rice for white rice may play a role in lowering the risk of diabetes. The current study recommends the consumption of whole-grain pigmented rice, as it exhibits efficient antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Further extensive research is needed to explore the use of pigmented rice as a supplement in the management of diabetes in humans.