Phytochemical Screening and In Vivo Hepatoprotective Activity of the Cordia Myxa L Fruit Extracts Against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Murad and Majed H. Karbon
This study aimed to test several Cordia myxa fruit extracts to study their protective activity in vivo after inducing hepatic injury due to oxidative stress caused by paracetamol at a concentration of 500 mg/kg. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of the Cordia myxa fruit using five solvents to obtain the extracts of crude methanolic root extract (CME), hexane (HxE), chloroform (ChE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and aqueous extract (AE). The results showed that the extracts contain different types of active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and glycosides. The amounts of phenols and flavonoids were estimated in these extracts and were found that the alcoholic extract contains the highest amount of total phenols 24.86 ± 0.93 mg / g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) from the extract weight. However, the flavonoids were 2.76 ± 0.10 mg / g Rutin equivalent of the alcoholic extract weight, followed by the rest of the extracts. Further, the methanolic extract and the aqueous extract of Cordia myxa fruits at a concentration of 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/ml showed activity in free radical scavenging DPPH by 50%. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was 0.9 ± 23.65 mg / g of the alcoholic extract. The aqueous and alcoholic extract was selected for giving a forced oral administration for the experimental animals concurrently with paracetamol. It was observed that there was an increase in the level of liver enzymes ALP, AST, ALT in the serum of male rats, as well as in the level of malondialdehyde MDA and a decrease in the level of catalase activity in the group dosed with paracetamol at a concentration of 500 mg/kg compared to the negative control group. The daily dosing of paracetamol combined with the alcoholic and aqueous extracts enabled to reduce the level of serum ALP, AST, and ALT liver enzymes, as well as a decrease in the level of MDA and an increase in the level of catalase enzyme activity, especially the group dosed with alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg close to the level of the normal negative control group. These results were supported by a histopathological study which showed that the hepatocytes retained their features and the infiltration and central necrosis were reduced after treatment with the alcoholic and aqueous extracts, especially at the concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the alcoholic extract compared to the tissue treated with the aqueous extract at the same concentration.