Stabilizing 30ppm Iodine in Iodized Salt: The Effect on Iodine Status and Thyroid Function in Children
Leny Latifah, Suryati Kumorowulan, Yusi Dwi Nurcahyani.
Background: Salt iodization considers an effective way of ensuring iodine sufficiency, but a wide variation range of household salt iodine levels existed. Research in iodized salt intervention on preschool-age children had not been found.
Objective: Analyse the effect of stabilizing 30 ppm household iodized salt for six months on iodine nutrition status and thyroid function.
Method: This was a pre post-test experiment study, with 76 preschool-age children in a replete iodine area in Purworejo Regency. Iodized salt at 30ppm was given for six months. Thyroid function (TSH and FT4) were assessed at 0 and 6 months. Iodine status (UIE) were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. ANOVA RM mixed methods were used to interpret the result.
Results: Before the study, 51.9% of households had an inadequate level of iodized salt. There were a significant increase of TSH (t=-3.184; p<0.000). FT4 significantly decreased, (t=6.686; p<0.001) but all still in the normal range. Means of UIE also increase significantly (25.95; p=0.000) towards excess (225µg/L vs 349µg/L). The main effect of iodine intake baseline status showed UIE increased differently between groups (F = 12.82; p = 0.000). Iodine status among groups of subjects initially excess decrease after three and six months. On the contrary, subjects initially deficient at baseline, after six months showed the highest mean of UIE.
Conclusion: Iodine status significantly increased. Preschool-age children who initially deficienct become groups with the highest iodine intake level. Monitoring iodine intake in population groups and policy on adjusting prophylaxis iodized salt is important.