The Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis on Skin Manifestation and Skin Tissue Necrosis in Cutaneous Anthrax Animal Model
Arie Kusumawardani, Harijono Kariosentono, Bambang Purwanto, Dhani Redhono, Risya Cilmiaty Arief, Brian Wasita, Rahmat Setya Adji
Cutaneous anthrax is responsible for 95% of anthrax cases around the world. Transmission of Bacillus anthracis facilitated by direct contact with animal or animal product with abraded skin. The toxins produced after infection could trigger the production of inflammatory cytokines and leads to the cutaneous manifestation of anthrax and its complications. Antibiotics are the current and common therapy for anthrax. The adverse effects and bacterial resistance increase the need for alternative regimens. Propolis has been widely used as traditional medicine containing anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiviral, and antibacterial effects. This experimental post-test only control group study was conducted in cutaneous anthrax animal models receiving ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). Skin manifestation was assessed clinically by score, while skin tissue necrosis was evaluated and scored histologically through a skin biopsy. In this study, all anthrax animal models had skin manifestations include papules, nodules, and eschar, while most animal models given EEP did not have skin manifestations. Histologically, skin tissue necrosis was found in all control group animals and mostly not found in other groups receiving EEP before or after induction. This proves that administering EEP either before or shortly after exposure can prevent skin manifestations and at the same time reduce inflammatory reactions when clinical manifestations appear.