The Evaluation of COVID-19 Effect on Pregnancy Loss-Molecular and Diagnostic Approach: A Narrative Review
The new severe respiratory disease causing virus (SARS-CoV-2) originates from Wuhan, China and has spread around the world. According to studies, the results of the SARS-CoV-2 test have been reported to be positive for a number of pregnant women. However, not much is known about the effect of this virus on pregnancy and the outcome of the baby. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular and diagnostic approach in evaluating the effect of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pregnancy loss. The entry of COVID-19 virus into the pregnant mother's body through various channels, including the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme receptor (ACE2), affects the immune and coagulation systems and hormone levels. These changes include increased D-Dimer, platelet and decreased Protein C (PC) levels, increased antithrombin III (AT-III) and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, followed by disruption of various signaling pathways such as JAK/STAT and PI3K Is. And SMAD factors 1/3; Decreased regulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hormones such as progesterone was observed. These changes disrupt decision-making in the endometrium and ultimately lead to serious pregnancy risks, including miscarriage. Due to the important role of signaling pathways in maintaining the body's homeostasis and regulating the body's immune functions, disrupting the pathways through the entry of the virus into the body disrupts the body's homeostasis increases the risk of miscarriage in pregnant women.