The Role of Multimicronutrients on Improving Better Pregnancy Outcomes: A literature review
Lucy Widasari, Maisuri T Chalid, Nurhaedar Jafar, Abdul Razak Thaha, Andi Dirpan
This paper describes the role of multimicronutrients on improving better pregnancy outcomes. Multimicronutrients are vitamins and minerals needed for normal body function, growth and development. There are 6 vitamins and minerals involved in heme synthesis, namely Cu, vitamin B2, folic acid, vitamin B12, Fe and vitamin B6 which are the main components in the formation of red blood cells and ensure the availability of oxygenation supply in the tissues. There are 6 vitamins and minerals involved in implantation and placentation, namely vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, vitamin B1, vitamin B3 and vitamin D. There are 3 vitamins and minerals that work in overactivation of the regulatory growth pathways of the mother, Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) namely zinc, iodine and vitamin A which will stimulate placental expression and regulate GLUT-1 in the tissue so that the affinity for glucose increases. There are 2 vitamins that play an important role in glucose metabolism and which can affect the availability of energy for the fetus, namely vitamin D and zinc. There are 3 vitamins and minerals that play a role in the synthesis of myelin and regulate the release of neurotransmitters for brain growth, namely folic acid, zinc and iodine, Fe, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and vitamin C, and vitamin E. The administration of MMN also optimizes the collaboration network between antioxidants (antioxidant network), which occurs between all antioxidants through their respective mechanisms in counteracting free radicals. There is a synergistic relationship between vitamin C, E, ß-carotene, selenium, and zinc as antioxidants.