Ziehl-Neelsen Technique versus Gene-Expert PCR Method in TB Patients: A Sample Study in Ramadi City, Iraq
Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The probability of developing TB disease is much higher among people infected with HIV, and also higher among people with risk factors. Iraq was classified the seventh country in Middle East Asia that related to the high burden of tuberculosis. The study aimed to compare the results of AFB sputum test and sputum (Gene-expert automated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) system) in Ramadi TB center, Anbar Governorate, West of IRAQ.
Patients and Methods: Four hundred and three (403) TB patients were included in this study. They were attending Thoracic Diseases and TB Central Hospital in Ramadi City, West of Iraq. WHO Sputum specimen was taken from each patient following guidelines. Each sample was manipulated in the lab using AFB and TB Gene expert automated PCR system in Ramadi TB center. Results were reported and analysed using SPSS.
Results: The number of patient children was lower than adult patients, one (1) and (102) for each respectively. In adult patients, the highest ratio of TB patients was found among patients within age group (18-30) years old individuals followed by patients within age groups (31-45) and (45-60) years old individuals, (35.4%),(25.60%) and (23.72%) for each respectively. Further, non-significant difference (p ≥ 0.5) was found between male and female patients ratio included in this study. Regarding AFB results, only one male child within age group (13-17) was showing positive AFB test result and the same individual was showing positive gene expert result. In adults, patients within age group (18-30) and (46-60) years old were showing highest rate of positive AFB and gene expert results (40.20%) and (35.30%) for each respectively.
Conclusion: AFB and gene expert tests are suitable tests for the identification of TB infection in adults and children above 6 years due to easy sampling of sputum suitable for these tests. There is a strong relation (P ≤ 0.005) between AFB and gene expert results in children and adults.