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A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) of Escherichia coli on Livestock and Animal Products: Public Health Importance

Abstract

Hayyun Durrotul Faridah, Erna Kristiana Dewi, Fatimah, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Hani Plumeriastuti

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major challenge for the world of health in this century. This resistance event is closely related to the use of antibiotics that are not in accordance with the rules in both the hospital sector and the livestock sector. Antibiotics have an important role in treating infectious diseases. The role of antibiotics is expanding not only as a treatment but also to prevent disease and as a growth promoter in livestock. Escherichia coli has been widely used to monitor resistance in livestock and food of animal origin because these microbes can be found in the digestive tracts of warmblooded animals. Several strains of Escherichia coli are potential sources of resistant genes that can be transmitted to humans. Livestock and food of animal origin such as poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, eggs, and milk have become reservoirs for resistant Escherichia coli. It is not only resistant to one type of antibiotic but has also become multidrug resistant, and also become public health problem. Escherichia coli has different resistance mechanisms depending on the type of antibiotic. This resistance mechanism is also encoded by resistance genes which can be transmitted horizontally. Resistant bacteria encode different resistance genes for each antibiotic class. There needs to be strict regulations and supervision to limit the use of antibiotics in the livestock sector so that it can reduce cases of antibiotic recession in the world

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